Stem Cure India

About Stem Cell

What are the different types of Stem Cells on the basis of sources?
  • Embryonic stem cells – They are harvested from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, five days after fertilization.
  • Adult stem cells - Many adult tissues contain stem cells that can be isolated. (Adipose tissue, Bone Marrow, Peripheral Blood, Liver, Nervous tissue, Skin, Teeth, Pancreas etc.)
  • Umbilical cord stem cells - Umbilical cord blood and Umbilical cord contains stem cells similar to those found in bone marrow.
  • Fetal stem cells – Fetal stem cells are primitive cell types found in the organs of fetuses

What are the different types of stem cells on basis of their potency?
  • Totipotent : They  are found only in early embryos. Each cell can form a complete organism (e.g., Cells from early (1-3 days) embryos).
  • Pluripotent : They  exist in the undifferentiated inner cell mass of the blastocyst and can form any of the over 200 different cell types found in the body.
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  • Multipotent : They are derived from fetal tissue, cord blood and adult stem cells. Although their ability to differentiate is more limited than pluripotent stem cells, they already have a track record of success in cell-based therapies.
  • Unipotent : These cells can produce only one cell type, their own, but have the property of self-renewal which distinguishes them from non-stem cells.

What are Embryonic stem cells?

Embryonic Stem Cell

Embryonic stem cells, as their name suggests, are derived from embryos that have been fertilized through IVF. The embryos from which embryonic stem cells derived are typically four or five days old and are a hollow microscopic ball of cells called the blastocyst. It is the richest source of undifferentiated stem cells. The blastocyst includes three structures: the trophoblast, which is the layer of cells that surrounds the blastocoel, a hollow cavity inside the blastocyst; and the inner cell mass, which is a group of cells at one end of the blastocoel that develop into the embryo proper.

What are adult stem cells?
Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after embryonic development. The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. Adult stem cells multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues.

What are sources of Adult Stem Cells?

Adult Stem Cell

Adult Stem cells can be found in various tissue including Bone marrow, Peripheral blood, Brain, Blood vessels, Skeletal muscle, Skin, Teeth, Heart, Gut, Liver, Ovarian epithelium, Testis, umbilical cord, cord blood etc.

What is the difference between Embryonic stem cells and Adult stem cells?
Embryonic stem cells are derived from inner mass cells of early embryos at blastocysts stage. They are totipotent or pluripotent. So they are capable of giving rise to all of the cell types in the body including non regenerative cells. While as adult stem cells are multipotent or unipotent and typically found only in tissue that undergo regular turnover and are capable of giving rise to functional cells in their tissue.
Embryonic stem cells can be divided many times or possibly indefinitely in culture to make many cells. This may sometimes give rise to uncontrolled growth of the cells, which is another questionable issue after ethical issue about its availability.

What are the characteristic of Adult stem cells?
  • Adult stem cells are typically multipotent cells, whose primary purpose is healing.
  • Found throughout the body after embryonic development. and can renew themselves and differentiate into specialized cell types of the tissue or organ.
  • Most adult stem cells are lineage-restricted  and are generally referred to by their tissue origin.

What are the possible use of stem cells?
  • Cure of diseases where no alternate treatment is available or alternate treatment has long waiting period like organ transplant
  • In research of cell development and prevention of diseases.
  • Testing and developing new drug.

Why we do not see repair in some cases?
If transplanted stem cells may not be able to reach target organ in sufficient quantity and/or may not home at target site due to any mysterious reason than the outcome or repair may be very less. This may results in failure of the treatment where the sufficient repair is not seen.